Water Journal : Water Journal May 2015
MAY 2015 water 43 Feature article Central Government authorities need to establish clear national mandates; identify the authority responsible for service delivery; clarify obligations to implement services; and set clear service level targets for settlements. These targets should emphasise outcomes (such as improved access, reduced cost and measurable environmental benefits), and better processes like engagement with settlement residents, particularly women. Government agencies, donors and NGOs need to improve the enabling environment for new programs to ensure continuous sector support after implementation stages. Stakeholder research is needed to help funders, regulators and implementers better reach under-served communities. New technical and financial service delivery strategies need to be developed, tested and implemented in areas that are difficult to reach. These strategies should address the immediacy of need, as well as the long-term nature of the challenge in informally settled communities. Sanitation research should focus on developing a financially viable and actionable list of waste management options. Regional research programs can promote innovation, which helps utilities identify the best options to test in their cities. Donors can pilot technical approaches, such as decentralised sewers or innovative financing methods, which are appropriate for settlement communities. Development partners can identify appropriate, feasible project options for settlement communities as part of technical assistance packages. Outcome-oriented performance incentives can resource and motivate implementing agencies to identify and invest in the most effective policies, technologies and capacity-building opportunities to achieve performance targets. Lastly, stakeholders need to work together to develop and implement projects. NGOs may better engage settlement communities than utilities alone, while utilities have more resources to scale-up projects than NGOs. Co-ordinated partnerships between NGOs, utilities and other organisations can ensure long-term service delivery. WJ the authors Alyse Schrecongost (email: amschrecongost@ gmail.com) has been researching, managing, advising and evaluating international development, resource management and WASH projects for nearly 15 years. Currently an independent consultant, Alyse previously worked at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where she was a core member of the Transformative Technology Initiative and Urban Sanitation Markets Initiative. Katherine Wong (email: katherine.wong@ castalia-advisors.com) is an economist with experience in analysing water, energy and other issues in an international context. She is currently an analyst at Castalia, an economic consulting firm with a focus on infrastructure and development projects. She has worked on projects for the World Bank, the New Zealand Government, and private sector clients. Penny Dutton (email: firstname.lastname@example.org. au) is a Regional WASH Social Research and Community Development Consultant with the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program. She has over 20 years of experience working on water and sanitation projects in SE Asia and the Pacific. Isabel Blackett (email: iblackett@worldbank. org) has over 20 years of experience in sanitation, including in Africa and East Asia for UNICEF, DFID, KfW, the private sector, and other bilateral development agencies. She has worked as a Senior Sanitation Specialist in the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program regional office in East Asia and the Pacific since 2005, focusing on the regional program, and also recently on WSP’s emerging urban sanitation agenda. Figure 4. Unprotected settlement water meter (top left), exposed PVC pipes linking meters to households (right), and unsafe water storage (bottom left).
Water and CSG
Water Journal June 2015