Water Journal : Water Journal December 2012
non-revenue water refereed paper technical features 100 DECEMBER 2012 water Meter replacement guidelines Based on these loss percentages and the costing assumptions, it would appear that it is not cost effective to replace the meter solely based on the registration age. When preparing a meter replacement policy, consideration of both the non- and under-registration components of the unregistered volume should be made. As has been illustrated with the available data, the percentage of non-registered volume increased more significantly with higher total registered volumes as compared with under-registration. Therefore, non-registration should not be neglected. The replacement interval will vary between brands and sizes of meters and will also depend on the operating conditions of the meter. Lastly, given that variable water charges are often increasing at rates greater than inflation, thus implying a greater value of non-registered water, there may be greater justification for reducing meter replacement intervals in the future. Further Research Opportunities The research in this report is based on a limited sample size. To better understand the implications of non- registration for assessing non-revenue water and developing meter replacement guidelines to assist non-revenue water calculations and meter replacement policies, further work is required to: 1. More rigorously test a statistically relevant sample of meters at very low flows (i.e. flow rates below 5L/hr) for a range of brands with differing levels of registration, to improve the confidence associated with the non-registration percentage losses. 2. Collate and test both non- and under- registration for statistically significant samples of different water meter types in varying water distribution areas in order to provide default values for meter replacement assessments. 3. Apply smart metering technologies and advanced customer demand profiling techniques to improve the present understanding of domestic user profiles. Acknowledgements This project was funded by the Victorian Smart Water Fund. Thank you to members of the Steering Committee and Henry Friese from Barwon Water (Geelong) for meter testing. The contributions of other members of the project team are also gratefully acknowledged. The Authors Dr Pierre Mukheibir (email: pierre.mukheibir@ uts.edu.au) is a Research Director at the Institute for Sustainable Futures at the University of Technology Sydney. His research is focused on Urban Water Planning & Management, Water Supply Demand Strategies and Water Loss Reduction. Associate Professor Rodney Stewart (email: email@example.com) is the Director of the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering & Management at Griffith University. His research is focused on Urban Water Planning, Smart Metering and Residential End Use Studies. Associate Professor Damien Giurco (email: Damien.Giurco@uts.edu. au) is a Research Director at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney. His urban water research focuses on Integrated Resources Planning, Smart Metering and Industrial Ecology. Kelvin O’Halloran (email: firstname.lastname@example.org. au) is an Adjunct Associate Professor, Infrastructure Engineering & Management, Griffith University. He has held research positions at UNSW, UQ and UCL (London) and has worked for Gold Coast Water, Thames Water, Wide Bay Water and, currently, Seqwater. He specialises in bringing together universities and industry for mutually beneficial projects. References Alegre H, Baptista J, Cabrera E, Cubillo F, Duarte P, Hirner W, Merkel W & Parena R (2006): Performance Indicators for Water Supply Services – 2 nd Edition. IWA Manual of Best Practice, IWA Publishing. Arregui F, Cabrera Jr E, Cobacho R & García- Serra J (2005): Key Factors Affecting Water Meter Accuracy, Proceedings of Leakage 2005 Conference, Halifax. Arregui FJ, Cabrera E, Cobacho R & García-Serra J (2006): Reducing Apparent Losses Caused by Meters’ Inaccuracies, in Water Practice & Technology, Vol 1, IWA Publishing. CIEM (2011a): Experimental Study on Meter Registration Accuracy at Low Flow Rates and Benefits of UFR Implementation, Technical Report 2, Understanding Apparent Water Losses Through Non-Registration of Domestic Water Meters [prepared for the Smart Water Fund], Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Management, Griffith University. CIEM (2011b): Determining Average Volumes of Residential Water Consumption in Flow Rate Interval Categories, Technical Report 1, Understanding Apparent Water Losses Through Non-Registration of Domestic Water Meters [prepared for the Smart Water Fund], Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Management, Griffith University. Makki AA, Stewart RA, Panuwatwanich K & Beal C (2011): Revealing the Determinants of Shower Water End Use Consumption: Enabling Better Targeted Urban Water Conservation Strategies, Journal of Cleaner Production, in- press, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.08.007. NMI Recommendation R 49-1 (2009a): Water Meters Intended for the Metering of Cold Potable Water and Hot Water, Part 1: Metrological and Technical Requirements, National Measurement Institute, Sydney, April 2009. NMI Recommendation R 49-2 (2009b): Water Meters Intended for the Metering of Cold Potable Water and Hot Water, Part 2: Test Methods, National Measurement Institute, Sydney, April 2009. Stewart RA, Willis R, Giurco D, Panuwatwanich K & Capati G (2010): Web-based knowledge management system: linking smart metering to the future of urban water planning. Australian Planner, Vol 47, pp 66–74. Talebpour M, Stewart R, Beal C, Dowling B, Sharma A & Fane S (2011): Rainwater Tank End Usage and Energy Demand: A Pilot Study. Water Journal, Vol 38(1): pp 85–89. Water Services Association of Australia, National Water Commission and the NWI Parties 2006, National Performance Framework: 2005–06 Urban Performance Reporting Indicators and Definitions Handbook. Water Services Association of Australia, National Water Commission and the NWI Parties 2010, National Performance Framework: 2009–10 Urban Performance Reporting Indicators and Definitions Handbook. WBW (2009): Understanding Apparent Water Losses Through Non-Registration of Domestic Water Meters [prepared for the Smart Water Fund], Wide Bay Water, November 2009. WBW (2011): Understanding Apparent Water Losses Through Non-Registration of Domestic Water Meters, Stage 2: Refining the Predictions from Stage 1 [prepared for the Smart Water Fund], Wide Bay Water, July 2011. Willis RM, Stewart RA, Panuwatwanich K, Jones S & Kyriakides A (2010): Alarming Visual Display Monitors Affecting Shower End Use Water And Energy Conservation in Australian Residential Households. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol 54 (12), pp 1117–1127. Willis RM, Stewart RA, Giurco DP, Talebpour MR (2011a): End Use Water Consumption in Households: Impact of Socio-Demographic Factors and Efficient Devices, Journal of Cleaner Production, in-press, doi:10.1016/j. jclepro.2011.08.006. Willis RM, Stewart RA, Williams P, Hacker C, Emmonds S & Capati G (2011b): Residential Potable and Recycled Water End Uses in a Dual Reticulated Supply System. Desalination Vol 272 (1–3), pp 201–211.
Water Journal February 2013
Water Journal November 2012-1