Water Journal : Water Journal November 2012-1
demand management refereed paper technical features 88 NOVEMBER 2012 water This restriction remained effective until June 2009 when it was reduced to Level 3, which allowed for watering lawns and gardens using watering cans or buckets at any time of the day. Consequently, the per capita demand has significantly reduced since 2001. Figure 2 illustrates, over the period 2001 to 2008, the total demand reduced from 301L/ capita/d to 193L/capita/d, which amounts to about 36% reduction in water demand. The residential water demand reached its lowest value of 159L/capita/d in 2008, which is significantly lower than the recent Australian average water demand of 185L/capita/d as estimated by Beal et al. (2010). In addition to the introduction of water use restrictions, the price of water increased steeply during the period 2005–2009, as shown in Figure 3. Increases in water price could have contributed towards the decrease in per capita demand between 2005 and 2008. However, increasingly strict water restriction appear to have had a larger impact on water use than the increase in water prices, although the two factors are difficult to separate post-2006. The main strategies used by consumers and water authorities to reduce the consumption of town water supply were: • Rainwater harvesting by the individual property owners; • Refitting of water efficient devices; and • Implementation of water conservation measures by consumers (such as shorter showers) and the water authorities (such as leakage control). This study concentrates on the data related to rainwater harvesting and retrofit (REFIT) kit uptake rates. Data Collection The uptake of rainwater tanks and REFIT kits were estimated by the following two methods: I. Gosford City Council’s rebate approval records; and II. Household survey. Rebate approval records Due to the high costs associated with rainwater tank uptake, government authorities have introduced rebates on rainwater tanks to ease the financial burden on households. Since rainwater tanks became more readily available for households in New South Wales in the early 2000s, the uptake of rainwater tanks for external usage has become more widespread in urbanised areas. Government rebates are now more targeted on encouraging the plumbing of rainwater supply for internal uses such as toilets and the cold water supply for washing machines by either offering improved rebates for internal connections, or by making internal connection mandatory in order to get the rebate. Along with the State and Federal rebates, Gosford LGA (Local Government Area) residents have had a third rebate from GCC. Table 2 summarises the details of these rebate schemes. Table 2. Summary of various rainwater tank rebates (Modessa, 2010). Rainwater Tank(s) Capacity Australian Government Rebate NSW Government Rebate GCC Rebate 2,000–3,999L $400 $150 $150 4,000–6,999L $500 $400 $400 7,000L + $500 $500 $500 Connected to Toilet(s) $500 $150–$300 Connected to Washing Machine(s) $500 Effective dates Jan 2009–May 2011 July 2007–June 2011 Jan 2003–August 2009 Comments Only available for households that plumb rainwater supply to toilets and washing machines 300 350 150 200 250 nd(L/capita.d) Total demand Ridtild d 50 100 150 Deman Residenti demand Non-residential demand R1 R2 R3R4 R3 - 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Year la Figure 2. Variation in per capita demand between 1993 and 2009. $1 80 $1 20 $1.40 $1.60 $1.80 L $0 60 $0.80 $1.00 $1.20 WaterPrice,$/kL $- $0.20 $0.40 $0.60 W $ 1993 1998 2003 2008 Year Figure 3. Variation of water price.
Water Journal December 2012
Water Journal September 2012-1