Water Journal : Water Journal September 2012-1
regular features 34 SEPTEMBER 2012 water awa news Amendment In our August issue we published a technical paper titled ‘Comparing International Water Regulations’ by A Mofidi, P Hillis and J Evans. We have been informed that there was an error in Table 7 where the 2011 USEPA Value (mg/l) of Trihalomethanes was described as ‘0.25’. This should have been ‘0.08, 0.04’, as described in the ## Reference Note. Please see corrected Table below. The authors and AWA apologise for the error. Water Retail Specialist Network Launched at Ozwater’12, the Water Retail Specialist Network has been formed to support those working in the areas of water retailing, billing and customer communications. The network is a unique platform servicing water retailers in utilities, section leaders, regulators, those working with retail billing systems, and suppliers of retail bodies. EcoCatalysts complete solutions include a package of products and services that will help you treat your wastewater plant efficiently, so you never dose more product then you need. Our team of experts offer services such as site assessment, certify and dosing strategies. LatestFormula Proven Results Solubilise Organic Matter Increase Dissolved Oxygen Latest Bio-Organic Catalyst Reduces Odour Eliminates Fats, Oils & Greases OHS Compliant Call: 1800 207 009 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.ecocatalysts.com.au Table 7. Comparing ADWG and USEPA disinfection by-product requirements. Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Disinfectant Responsible 2011 ADWG Value mg/l 2011 USEPA Value mg/l Bromate Ozone (O3),+ 0.02 0.01 Chlorate Chlorine dioxide (ClO2),+ NV 0.8CA Chlorite ClO2,+ 0.8 0.8 Halogenated acetic acids * Chloroacetic acid Chlorine (Cl2) and Chloramines (NH2Cl) 0.15 Summed Value Less than 0.030 or 0.060 Dichloroacetic acid 0.1 Trichloroacetic acid 0.1 Chlorophenols 2-chlorophenol 0.3 NV 2,4-dichlorophenol 0.2 2,4,6-trichlorophenol 0.02 Cyanogen chloride ** 0.08** 0.200** Formaldehyde O3, Cl2 , ClO2 0.5 NV n-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) NH2Cl 0.0001 CA Total organic carbon Precursor # NV tt Trichloroacetaldehyde Cl2 ,NH 2 Cl 0.02 CCL Trihalomethanes (sum total) Cl2, NH2Cl 0.25 0.08, 0.04## Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) Precursor # NV 2 L/mg-m NV No value set for regulation or guidance at this time. CCL Not currently regulated by USEPA, but on the Contaminant Candidate List 3 (CCL3) for potential future regulation. + These compounds are DBPs and they are formed during the production and storage of bulk liquid chlorine. CA State of California (US) has certain requirements that are more stringent than USEPA regulations, which include the following: - N D MA public health goal = 0.000003mg/l = 3 nanograms per litre, ng/l (the 10-6 CRL) - N D MA notification level = 0.00001mg/l - N D MA response level = 0.0003mg/l (level where source should be removed from service, 10-4 CRL) - Chlorate notification level = 0.8mg/l - SUVA Specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance = Water absorbance of UV light at a wavelength of 254 nanometres, nm (UV254), divided by the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC). tt A treatment technique is in place that requires a certain percentage removal of either total organic carbon (TOC), which is based on the measured ratios of alkalinity and TOC, or the calculated SUVA (if SUVA is >2.0 L/mg-m). The purpose of this treatment technique is to reduce the formation potential of DBPs and aid in protection of the retic system. * USEPA does not regulate acetic acids separately, but combines several into a sum of five, which includes dichloro-, trichloro-, monochloro-, bromo- and dibromo- (acetic acid). USEPA is in the process of evaluating the risk of several additional acetic acids and including them into the current summed regulation. ** ADWG lists “as cyanide” while USEPA lists “as free cyanide”. # SUVA and TOC are not DBPs, but they measure precursors that directly impact DBP formation during chemical disinfection. ## Most utilities are required to meet the 0.08/0.06 mg/l guidelines (THM/acetic acids species respectively); however, certain conditions do require the sum of each total to be less than 0.04/0.03 mg/l (for total THMs/acetic acids, respectively).
Water Journal November 2012-1
Water Journal August 2012