Water Journal : Water Journal July 2012
refereed paper environmental concerns water JULY 2012 59 water characteristics and discharge requirements of each application. While this process is capable of producing a high-grade apatite-type calcium phosphate fertiliser ingredient for agricultural use, the recovered phosphorus product from this process may have potential for other industrial uses, which should be further explored. In addition, potential integration of this technology with other nutrient recovery technologies should be explored, such as combining the phosphate-rich liquids from this process (alkaline fluid from media desorption) with nutrient-rich liquids from other recovery processes to produce a more complete fertiliser product with both nitrogen and phosphorus content. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank all the plant operators, maintenance staff, mechanics, electricians, engineers, laboratory analysts, technicians, consultants and other water quality professionals from the following organisations, who contributed their time and efforts to these studies: Japan Sewage Works Agency; Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation; Black & Veatch Corporation; Johnson County Environmental Laboratory; Weck Laboratories and Midwest Mechanical Contractors. The Authors Cindy Wallis-Lage (email: Wallis-LageCL@BV.COM) is President of Black & Veatch's global water business and is responsible for the leadership and management of a workforce of more than 2,600 professionals based around the world, including in the United States, Europe and Asia Pacific regions. Jim Fitzpatrick is a Senior Process Engineer with Black & Veatch Corporation, Kansas City, Missouri, US and Sock- Hoon Koh is a Process Engineer with Black & Veatch Corporation, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Hisanao Aoki, Ichiro Midorikawa, Akihiro Omori and Tadashi Shimizu are all with Asahi Kasei Chemicals Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. References AAPFCO (2007): Model for Fertilizer Regulation in North America, Statement of Uniform Interpretation and Policy #25, Official Publication No.60, Association of American Plant Food Control Officials, page 65. AFPC (2004): Fertilizer metal standards compiled by the Association of Fertilizer and Phosphate Chemists, http://afpc.net/ World%20Stds%2004.pdf (accessed November 9, 2010). FAO (2004): Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture. Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 13, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, www. fao.org/docrep/007/y5053e/y5053e06.htm (accessed July 28, 2010). Fitzpatrick J, Aoki H, Koh S, deBarbadillo C, Midorikawa I, Omori A & Shimizu T (2010): Pilot Testing of a High Efficiency Adsorbent System for Phosphorus Removal and Recovery to Meet Ultra-Low Phosphorus Limits, Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 82nd Annual Technical Exhibition and Conference, Orlando, Florida. Midorikawa I, Aoki H, Omori A, Shimizu T, Kawaguchi Y, Kassai K & Murakami T (2008): Recovery of High Purity Phosphorus from Municipal Wastewater Secondary Effluent by a High-speed Adsorbent, 5th IWA Leading- Edge Technology Conference & Exhibition on Water and Wastewater Technologies, Zurich, Switzerland. Midorikawa I, Aoki H, Omori A, Shimizu T, Nakazawa H, Kawaguchi Y & Kassai K (2009): Application of Phosphorus Adsorption and Recovery System for Sewage Secondary Effluent, Proceedings from the 46th Japan Sewage Works Association Annual Conference. Omori A, Midorikawa I, Aoki H & Shimizu T (2007): High Efficiency Adsorbent System for Phosphorus Removal & Recovery, 4th IWA Leading-Edge Technology Conference & Exhibition on Water & Wastewater Technologies, Poster Presentation (P38). Table 2. Recovered solids content and metal contaminants standards in phosphate fertilisers. Parameter Pilot Average Minimum P Requirement Maximum Metal Allowance Unit USA High-Grade Rock Organic Fertiliser North America d European Union f China & Japan f Australia f % % mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg Total Solids % 38 - - - - - - Phosphorus % 13.3 a 12.2 b 6.5 c - - - - Arsenic mg/kg <5 - - 61e - 50 - Cadmium mg/kg <0.3 - - 122 e 6g 8 40g Chromium mg/kg 3.2 - - - - 500 - Lead mg/kg <0.3 - - 610 e - 100 - Mercury mg/kg <0.1 - - 30 - 5 - Nickel mg/kg 2.0 - - 7,625 - - - Zinc mg/kg 14 - - 12,810 - - - a Equivalent to 30.5% as P2O5 and 67% as bone phosphate of lime (BPL). b Based on FAO (2004). Equivalent to 28% as P2O5 and 61% as BPL. c Equivalent to Japanese standard of 15% as P2O5 for fertilisers produced from organic wastes (Midorikawa et al., 2009). d Based on AAPFCO (2007). Values based on 30.5% as P2O5. e Based on California standard, which is more stringent than AAPFCO (2007). f Based on AFPC (2004). g Values based on 30.5% as P2O5. EU limit of 20 mg/kg P2O5 to be phased in by 2015. Australian limit is 300 mg/kg P.
Water Journal August 2012
Water Journal May 2012