Water Journal : Water Journal April 2012
refereed paper international projects water APRIL 2012 127 c. Private families, businesses, government and other NGOs pay the cost price of US$2,020 (which is inclusive of contract rates and MSABI operational costs); d. Public institutions such as schools pay no upfront contribution; however, they sign a service agreement contract whereby they pay US$3 per month for guarantee of spare parts and repair of the pump. Groups and private families sharing water also contribute materials (sand, gravel, bricks), labour to assist with drilling (4--6 persons), and food/ accommodation for the drill team. This equates to a monetised total contribution equivalent to 20% and 28% of the total cost of installation. The community contribution price is aimed at matching equivalent local service prices for an open well or auger- drilled borehole. Both these technologies produce sub-standard water quality. Drillers are paid on a contract basis. The role of MSABI is to contract, manage and supervise work and ensure quality control. MSABI is also handling accounting and paperwork associated with all drilling and rope pump installations. A recent innovation is the creation of a monthly service subscription whereby owners pay the equivalent of US$3 per month for on-call service, guaranteeing fast repair services and replacement of spare parts. This creates maintenance service units with local knowledge on water asset maintenance and repair. MSABI is working towards a system whereby owners can pay fees remotely through mobile phone SMS technology. Owners will also be able to update the status of their water point asset through SMS, and this information will be reported to a live mapping platform, with any maintenance issues reported directly to the responsible maintenance unit. 2. Sanitary installation (construction and fertiliser) MSABI also designs above-ground compost and split-septic irrigation systems. The objective is to initiate progressive behaviour change towards a community preference for treatment systems that protect shallow aquifers and create value-adding fertiliser/ compost. The compost systems are designed for family loads (4--15 people). Provision has been made in the design for optional urine separation and use of the facility for showering (a separate drain to a rough gravel filter is used to split wash water from the compost material). A similar subsidy business program to that of the water points is under trial. Community members approach MSABI and enter into a contract agreement for the construction of an environmentally sound latrine. They contribute money (equivalent to US$100), materials (bricks, sand, cement, gravel) and labour (1 x person to assist with construction). This equates to 55% of the total cost. The contribution is aimed at matching local service costs for deep-pit latrines, which are a major cause for aquifer pollution throughout the region. An approved local building contractor is engaged to construct the latrine system. The sub and super structure is brick and the roof is iron sheeting. MSABI is responsible for contract management, supervision and quality control. A complementary value-adding business venture is to combine the use of urine and compost fertiliser with agriculture activities. This can be done by the latrine owner on a family garden adjacent to the latrine (shower water and urine can be combined to drip irrigation). Alternatively, the urine and compost could be transported to a central depot facility and on-sold for larger agriculture activities. MSABI is trialling the establishment of a community fertiliser business in an attempt to stimulate interest and change towards composting latrines. MSABI will create a market for the purchase of urine and compost and utilise these fertiliser products on irrigated cash crops. Previous studies have proven the value of urine and compost, and MSABI aims to create demand for these products locally through demonstration. 3. Irrigation (irrigated cash crop lease arrangements) Tanzania experiences distinct wet and dry seasons. In the Kilombero Valley, the wet season provides opportunity for broadacre rice and sugar cane production. However, farming activities are limited during the dry season due to a lack of surface water and rain. With an average water table less than 10m, there is great opportunity for irrigation services. MSABI is pioneering an irrigation lease arrangement targeted at small-scale rural cash crop businesses. Land owned by MSABI or leased from the village government is put under irrigation. Simple low-tech solutions are used for supply and delivery of water. MSABI is trialling a combination of solar power and rope pump technology with drip tape irrigation. The business model is aimed at high-value cash crop production of fruits and vegetables, creating a business opportunity for disadvantaged rural Tanzanians during the normally non-productive dry season. This idea is in its infancy of model development. Various cost recovery and business models will be evaluated, such as a monthly rental fee per unit area, or an upfront minimal deposit with rental payment completed on sale of produce. Initially MSABI will farm a portion of the irrigated plot as a proof of concept. If successful, MSABI will facilitate the scaling and rollout of this business venture, working with private landholders or local government to establish irrigation lease businesses. 4. Water treatment systems (clay pot filters) In 2008, MSABI undertook a survey to obtain feedback on preferred household water treatment options. There was a clear preference for a clay filter pot compared to boiling water, solar disinfection (SODIS), and chemical treatment options. As a result, MSABI is developing a clay water filter for household-based water treatment in close collaboration with a local women's pottery group. MSABI has been working with the international organisation, Potters for Peace, to obtain specific manufacturing advice. The objective is to establish Figure 1. Rota sludge drilling in action. The technology is essentially manual percussion drilling. The gentleman at the front controls the pressure in the drilling pipe, releasing the pressure at the top of the motion to release cuttings from the bottom of the borehole.
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