Water Journal : Water Journal April 2012
international projects refereed paper technical features 128 APRIL 2012 water a regional manufacturing and retail distribution business using simple, low-cost production methods. The pots are hand- made from a mixture of clay and rice husks and are fired in a kiln designed and built by MSABI. The filters are designed to fit into an existing water collection bucket. The filter pots are in the final stages of laboratory testing and will be commercially released within the next three months at a cost equivalent to US$10 each. 5. Research and training: WASH centre of excellence (Tanzanian professionals) The MSABI WASH program is establishing a centre of excellence in Ifakara with the aim of training and developing the next generation of WASH experts. These programs will educate, train and capacitate both Tanzanians and foreigners and prepare them for a working career in WASH. MSABI also has linkages with the Swiss Tropical Public Health Institute and Ifakara Health Institute to perform health impact and monitoring assessments. GHD will be involved with engineering research and development. Programs underway include rope pump and drilling technology developments, a randomised health evaluation comparison between various drinking water sources (open well, river, borehole), water point mapping, pump operability monitoring, water quality monitoring and lab testing of filter pots. Results Safe water point manufacturing, installation and service In less than three years MSABI has stimulated the generation of over 45 service delivery jobs under the privatisation of water and sanitation delivery services. A total of seven new business lines have been established with another three under trial and development. The privatisation of water installation businesses and local ownership has resulted in over 220 new water points installed in less than two years. This has provided safe water access to an estimated 45,000 disadvantaged rural Tanzanian people. This equates to an average cost of US$8 per person to provide safe water to rural communities (or a US$5 per person program cost ex-community contribution). Local owners of pumps have also benefited from business generated from the sale of water. Evidence from the field suggests a return on capital investment, which ranges between four and 12 months depending on the local demand and price of water. For example, an average pump selling 100 buckets per day at US2c per bucket generates US$2 per day or US$60 per month, or a pay-off time of seven months. Manufacturing of pumps and drilling equipment is undertaken by a small local fabrication business. At present, MSABI engages the services of six drilling and rope pump installation teams (two to three persons each team). To date, MSABI has signed 22 maintenance service contracts. This business is gaining momentum as the pool of new clients increases. All staff working under these local contract businesses were sourced from local villages. More than 90% of the staff have primary school education or less. MSABI facilitated the initial training and continues to provide ongoing education and mentorship to these persons. MSABI is working towards contractor independence by 2013. The budget cost of a MSABI borehole and rope pump installation is US$2020, which includes overheads for management, office, administration, accounting, motorbikes and water quality testing. This estimate also includes a research and solidarity contribution (US$150) and a risk contingency of 10%. The cost of manufacturing the rope pump is US$85. Spare parts resell for US$7 for a new rope, US$10 for a new handle, and US$5 for new bearings. The program or subsidy cost for a new water point installation varies between US$550 for private shared installations to US$750 for group installations. The main clients requesting services have been 34% private shared, 29% groups, 15% schools, 13% government and 4% private. The failure rate due to lack of water, rock issues or broken equipment down hole has been 5%. Monetary contributions from community and local government clients total TZS 37.2 million (US$24,800). "Rota sludge" drilling has been effective in drilling into alluvial sand and clay substrates at rates of between three and 10 metres per day. The efficiency and proficiency of drill teams increases significantly over time and with competition. Average job completion times have reduced from 10--14 days to 3--7 days over a two-year period. The drilling of sandstone and hard rock is problematic. Drilling of sandstone results in rates of 0.2-1.0 metre per day. Drillers are compensated with higher contract rates for each metre of rock drilled. An annual pump survey in 2010 found all pumps operational, with the exception of one pump that had been replaced by an electrical submersible pump. MSABI is currently undertaking the 2011 survey. An initial result from a sample of 30 pumps has found 100% functionality and high user satisfaction. This sample includes the first pump, which was installed two years ago and has required no major service repairs. Average rope life is heavily dependent on the number of users. For example, one pump with over 500 users per day has a rope replacement every three to four months, while some pumps with low usage have rope life >1 year. MSABI has recently introduced a ceramic guide block to turn the rope at the bottom of the borehole -- replacing a simple galvanised pipe design. It is expected that rope life will increase significantly with this modification. Clay filter pots MSABI has developed a production site for prototypes and established lab testing procedures in collaboration with the Ifakara Health Institute. Recent lab results from two batch samples of 65 pots each have shown excellent filtration performance results with an average FCU removal of 98% and an average iron removal of 99%. Hand production of the pots has been problematic in ensuring quality control. Problems include cracking, clay quality and irregularity in wall thickness. Recent modifications to the kiln design (improved air flow mixing), sourcing of high quality clay, increased drying time, and the introduction of a hydraulic pot press, Figure 2. The rota sludge equipment fully loaded onto a tricycle. The MSABI team has the capability to reach remote locations where conventional truck-mounted or trailer rigs cannot.
Water Journal May 2012
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