Water Journal : Water Journal March 2011
smart water systems & metering refereed paper 92 MARCH 2011 water SEQ RESIDENTIAL END USE STUDY Abstract Determining the end uses of water in residential (and other sector) properties can facilitate a more proactive approach to water demand management. The analysis of end use data can reveal the predictors of water demand for different end uses (for example, household demographics, washing machine efficiency), thus enabling the government and water businesses to implement targeted communication strategies and rebate programs. This paper represents the first research outputs of the South East Queensland Residential End Use Study (SEQREUS), including a winter 2010 end use breakdown, assessment of the influence of different demographic and appliance/fixture efficiency categories, and winter average day diurnal patterns of end uses. End Use Analysis Approach Smart metering has enhanced the capture, transfer, storage and analysis of high-resolution water consumption data (Stewart et al. 2010). However, an accurate end use study goes beyond smart metering, requiring the triangulation of data from diverse data sets (Willis et al. 2009a). Information on the descriptive, social and behavioural aspects of metered properties, stock inventory audit of water appliances/fixtures, and water use diaries are essential for accurate flow trace analysis (Athuraliya et al. 2008; White et al. 2004). Software such as Trace Wizard® has provided a key link between measured data and end use disaggregation (DeOreo et al. 1999). The SEQREUS has endeavoured to gain all of these data sources to ensure an accurate breakdown of household end use events within the sampling period. Methods The four study areas were located in the south-east corner of Queensland (Figure 1). A sample of properties was taken from the Sunshine Coast Regional Council, Brisbane City Council, Ipswich City Council and Gold Coast City Council (herein referred to as Sunshine Coast, Brisbane, Ipswich and Gold Coast respectively). A sub-sample for the SEQREUS project was generated from a larger study which involved the completion of a questionnaire of over 1,500 homes across SEQ. The study sample included only traditional mains-only supplied detached dwellings, which make up the majority of residential stock at present. Existing standard water meters were replaced with high-resolution meters capable of providing 0.014L/pulse outputs in five- second intervals to wireless data loggers. A representative sample of received data was extracted from the database and disaggregated into all end use events associated with the sampled residential households using the Trace Wizard® Version 4.1 software (Aquacraft 2010). A water fixture/appliance stock survey on the study sample was conducted in order to qualify how householders interact with such stock. In addition to the stock survey, each household was asked to complete a water diary where internal and external water use events were recorded over a seven-day period. The relationship between smart metering equipment, household stock inventory surveys and flow trace analysis is shown in Figure 2. A detailed discussion on the research methods is provided in Beal et al. (2010). Results and Discussion Overall water consumption trends An average total water consumption of 37L per household per day (L/hh/d) was recorded during the period of analysis. C Beal, RA Stewart, T Huang, E Rey Figure 1: Regions examined in SEQREUS. Inset: Location of SEQ. Figure 2: Schematic flow of process for acquisition, capture, transfer and analysis of water flow data.
Water Journal April 2011