Water Journal : Water Journal April 2011
membranes & desalination water APRIL 2011 99 In a more recent review, Strathmann (2010) suggests that EDR has an economic advantage over RO for waters with total dissolved salts as high as 10,000mg/L. Recent Installations A 200ML/day EDR plant began full-scale operation in 2009 in Barcelona, Spain, using river water of salinity approximately 2000mg/L as its source (Valero & Arbos, 2010). At its Spring Gully wastewater treatment plant near Bendigo, Coliban Water has installed EDR to further concentrate the brine from an RO process to decrease the overall brine volume placed in temporary storage for further processing (Beattie & Murdoch, 2008). The EDR plant that serviced the Yulara resort at Uluru in the Northern Territory for some 20 years was decommissioned about six years ago and replaced with an RO system. Other Applications of Electrodialysis ED and EDR are powerful separation techniques not limited to water desalting. Recent reviews describe a number of other applications of electrodialysis including in the chemical, biochemical, food and pharmaceutical industries, as well as in wastewater treatment and the production of high quality industrial water (Xu & Huang, 2008, Strathmann, 2010). The Authors Dr Russell Taylor (email: russell.taylor@ csiro.au) works for CSIRO Land and Water and Dr Brian Bolto (email: brian.bolto@ csiro.au) is with CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering. They are both located at Clayton, Victoria (postal address: Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Vic 3169). References Allison RP, 2001: Electrodialysis treatment of surface and waste waters. Proc. AWWA Conf., AWWA, Denver. Allison RP, 2005: Surface and wastewater desalination by electrodialysis reversal. Technical Paper TP1022EN 0510, General Electric Company, Trevose, Pennsylvania. Astom Corporation, 2004: Principle of electrodialysis. www.astom-corp.jp/en/ en-principle-001.html Balster J, Krupenko O, Pünt I, Stamatialis DF & Wessling M, 2005: Preparation and characterisation of monovalent ion selective cation exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone). Journal of Membrane Science 263, 137-145. Beattie M & Murdoch W, 2008: "Greening Bendigo" -- class a+ water production from Bendigo's recycled water factory. Proc. 71st Annual Water Industry Engineers and Operators' Conference, Bendigo Exhibition Centre, p109. Bolto BA, Tran T & Hoang M, 2007a: Membrane magic -- desalting by forward osmosis. Water Journal 34, 56-58. Bolto BA, Tran T & Hoang M, 2007b: Membrane distillation -- a low energy desalting technique? Water Journal 34, 59-62. Bolto B A, Hoang M & Tran T, 2010: Dual nanofiltration/reverse osmosis systems. Water Journal 37, 58-60. Gunjima T & Arai K, 1978: Selective electrodialysis of monovalent cations. Jap. Patent 78,137,083, as in Chem. Abs. 90, 192354w (1979). Gurtler BK, Vetter TA, Perdue EM, Ingall E, Koprivnjak JF & Pfromm PH, 2008: Combining reverse osmosis and pulsed electrical current electrodialysis for improved recovery of dissolved organic matter from seawater. Journal of Membrane Science 323, 328-336. Katz WE, 1983: State-of-the-art of the electrodialysis reversal (EDR) process in 1983. Proc. 44th Annual Meeting International Water Conference, Pittsburgh, Engineering Society of Western Pennsylvania, Bulletin TP 329. Kedem O, Schechtmann l, Mirsky Y, Saveliev G & Daltrophe N, 1998: Low-polarisation electrodialysis membranes. Desalination 118, 305-314. Kim DH, Moon SH & Cho J, 2002: Transport characteristics of natural organic matter in ion-exchange membrane for water treatment. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 2[5-6], 445-450. Koprivnjak JF, Perdue EM & Pfromm PH, 2006: Coupling reverse osmosis with electrodialysis to isolate natural organic matter from fresh waters. Water Research 40, 3385-3392. Kusumoto K & Mizutani Y, 1975: New anion- exchange membrane resistant to organic fouling. Desalination 17, 111-120. Leslie G, Stevens D & Wilson S, 2005: Designer reclaimed water. Water Journal 32, 75-79. Lindstrand V, Sundström G and Jönsson AS, 2000: Fouling of electyrodialysis membranes by organic substances. Desalination 128, 91-102. Meller FH, 1984: Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) Technology, Ionics Incorporated. Martyn H, Kaeding U & Heidenreich C, 2005: Desalination options for salinity management in the Northern Adelaide plains. Water Journal 32, 42-45. Nagarale RK, Shahi VK, Schubert SR, Rangarajan R & Mehnert R, 2004: Development of urethane acrylate composite ion-exchange membranes and their electrochemical behaviour. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 270, 446-454. Oren Y, Rubinstein I, Linder C, Saveliev G, Zaltzman B, Mirsky E & Kedem O, 2002: Modified heterogeneous anion-exchange membranes for desalination of brackish and recycled water. Environmental Engineering Science 19, 512-529. Reahl ER, 2006: Half a Century of Desalination with Electrodialysis. Technical Paper TP1038EN 0603, General Electric Company, Trevose, Pennsylvania. www.gewater.com/pdf/ Technical%20Papers_Cust/Americas/English/ TP1038EN.pdf Strathmann H, 2004: Operating principle of electrodialysis and related processes. In: Ion- Exchange Membrane Separation Processes, ed. H Strathmann, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 147, 233. Strathmann H, 2010: Electrodialysis, a mature technology with a multitude of new applications Desalination 264, 268-288. Sata T, Sata T & Yang W, 2002: Studies on cation- exchange membranes having permselectivity between cations in electrodialysis. Journal of Membrane Science 206, 31-60. Tanaka Y and Senõ M, 1981: Treatment of ion exchange membranes to decrease divalent ion permeability. Journal of Membrane Science 8, 115-127. Taylor R, 2005: Desalination of wastewaters using electrodialysis -- technical issues and challenges. Proc. AWA Specialty Conference on Membranes & Desalination, Adelaide, February. Taylor RJ & Goodman NB, 2007: Pilot plant demonstration of effluent desalination by electrodialysis at the Western Treatment Plant, Werribee, Final Report, Smart Water Fund Project, CSIRO Water for a Healthy Country Report, ISSN: 1835-095X. www.smartwater. com.au/projects/round1/edr/Pages/edr.aspx Turek M, 2002: Dual-purpose desalination-salt production electrodialysis, Desalination, 153 377-381. Valero F & Arbos R, 2010: Desalination of brackish river water using Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) Control of the THMs Formation in the Barcelona (NE Spain) area, Desalination, 253 170-174. Wilson JR, 1960: Demineralization by Electrodialysis, Butterworths Scientific Publications, London. Xu T & Huang C, 2008: Electrodialysis-based separation technologies: A critical review, AIChE Journal, 54 3147-3159. Zhang Y, Van der Bruggen B, Pinoy L & Meesschaert B, 2009: Separation of nutrient ions and organic compounds from salts in RO concentrates by standard and monovalent selective ion-exchange membranes used in electrodialysis. Journal of Membrane Science 332, 104-112.
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