Water Journal : Water Journal May 2011
refereed paper membranes & desalination wa PP 22551 7/00008 JOURNAL OF THE A ION • CHEMIC water Volume 37 No 7 NOVEMBER 2010 JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIA Volume 38 No 2 APRIL 2011 water JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIA Call for technical papers Water Journal is always seeking quality, well researched technical papers on a range of key and regularly addressed topics. Contributions from suitably qualified individuals are always welcome on these and other relevant topics of interest. Upcoming topics for the August, September, November and December 2011 issues include: August: • Coal Seam Gas Water, including methods using Desalination • Recycling, Operational Experiences • Governance September: • Wastewater Treatment • On-Site & Small Systems • International Developments November: • Energy Efﬁciency, GHG Emissions • Demand Management • Odour Management • IDA World Congress December: • Desalination – IDA Conference Report • Water Treatment • Water Reclamation Send your abstracts and/or technical paper submissions to our Technical Editor, Bob Swinton at: firstname.lastname@example.org AND email@example.com. Please see page 1, Editorial Submissions, for editorial guidelines. wa JOURNAL OF THE A PRINT POSTAPPROVED PP 225 517/000 08 SEWER PROCESSES • SMART SPECIAL FEATURE: PLANNING THE CITIES OF THE FUTURE Volume 38 No 3 MAY 2011 RRP $16.95 water JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIA PRINT P OST APPROV EDP P 225517/00008 NWC REPORT • DEMAND MANA THE DESALINATION DEBA TWO EXPERTS HAVE THEIR -- SEE PAGE 44 in differential pressure, and extends the run time out to four weeks. The effect of a warm water flush is illustrated in Figure 9. Concentration polarisation is the increase in dissolved solids at the membrane surface. The formation of a particulate fouling layer increases the concentration polarisation, as back diffusion of salts is restricted by the particulate layer. This generally leads to an increase in salt passage as the membrane-active surface is presented with increasing salt concentration. Flushing away the fouling layer would be expected to reduce salt passage. However, as illustrated in Figure 10, the reduced differential pressure after a flush (only Stage Two is shown) is accompanied by increased salt passage, and a subsequent reduction as differential pressure rises again. Conclusion The complex and variable feedwater to the Botany GTP is considered unique. However, as the world searches for more water sources to reclaim for beneficial use, the lessons learnt in the development of this operation can be applied in a broader context. Pilot trials should be conducted on the whole process train, and for sufficient duration to demonstrate the impact of process upsets or changes on downstream units. Chloramine dosing, flux reduction and periodic flushing are operational levers used to mitigate the impacts of biological fouling. However, without pre-treatment providing adequate removal of contaminants, the benefits of these levers are constrained. The GTP now produces treated water which is used for cooling tower make-up and demineraliser feed applications, with ultimate use in low and high pressure steam boilers and industrial chemical production. This water displaces 4--5MLD of potable water use from the Sydney Water supply. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Associate Professor Greg Leslie from UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology and Eddy Ostarcevic from Integrated Elements for their specialist advice and hands-on contributions. The Authors Fred Barendregt (B.E. Chemical) (email: Fred.Barendregt@kbr.com) is a Principal Process Engineer with KBR. He was seconded to Orica in 2005 to lead the commissioning of the Botany Groundwater Treatment Plant, and continues to lead process development and improvement activities for the plant. Michael Selleck (B. E. Chemical, BSc Molecular Biology) is the Technical Manager at Orica's Groundwater Treatment Plant, after commencing as a process engineer in 2006. He previously worked for Orica developing and commercialising enzymes for the degradation of pesticides in wastewater. References Dow Water & Process Solutions, 2009: FilmtecTM Reverse Osmosis Membranes Technical Manual. Form No. 609-00071-1009.
Water Journal April 2011
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