Water Journal : Water Journal November 2013
WATER NOVEMBER 2013 16 CrossCurrent POSTCARD FROM INDONESIA -- from Dr Dewi Kirono & Grace Tjandraatmadja A CSIRO team is involved in a collaborative research project that helps to manage sustainable urban water supplies in a changing climate in Makassar City, Indonesia, in collaboration with Hasanuddin University and government agencies. Like many other cities throughout the world, Makassar faces challenges from high rates of urbanisation, population increase, decaying infrastructure, the need for expansion to keep up with urban growth, nancial and capacity constraints and, potentially, climate change. The city's MDG target is to provide clean water supply to 78% of the population by 2015; however, currently only 62% out of a population of 1.3 million have access to mains water -- the rest rely on groundwater or carted water. The city -- the largest and most urbanised in eastern Indonesia -- will continue to face water shortages over the next few decades unless it can develop alternatives for sustainable water management. And, importantly, this will require shifting from reliance on large infrastructure alone to solutions that combine infrastructure and preventive measures, such as demand management and behavioural changes, in the future. These were key messages from the two-year research project. CURRENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES Firstly, the project investigated the current and future water services challenges in the region and developed new data, including projections of future regional climate and its medium-term impacts on stream ow of rivers -- the region's major raw water resources -- previously unavailable. Then the project examined the potential for bulk and clean water supply to service the urban demand under a range of scenarios based on population projections, water consumption patterns, leakage in distribution, infrastructure upgrade plans, climate options, and so on. Finally, the project worked with the locals to understand future implications, introduce total water cycle and integrated water management concepts, and explore potential adaptation options to improve the sustainability of water supply. This resulted in a number of suggestions proposed for further investigation such as "biopori" -- a locally developed technology for groundwater recharge and run-off reduction -- upgrade of water treatment plant capacity and water reuse, an education/awareness raising program and, in the long term, the exploration of alternative water supplies from greywater treatment, among others. Participatory approach and capacity building were the project's foci, aimed at enhancing capacity to mainstream climate change into planning and adaptation programs in the water sector at local level. More than 250 staff of government agencies, NGOs and universities participated in project activities over two years. Seven participants from Makassar spent two weeks in Melbourne to undertake training, study tours and interact with Australian scientists, water utilities, government agencies, and practitioners, learning about the Australian experience on adaptation to climate challenges and sustainable water management. The project was one of the research initiatives of the Research for Development Alliance, which is a strategic partnership between AusAID and CSIRO to improve the impact of aid. Dr Dewi Kirono (email: email@example.com) is a Senior Research Scientist who leads the Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability Research Team within the CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR) Division in Aspendale, Australia. Her works focus on integrated climate change impacts and adaptation assessment. She led the project described in this article and can be contacted for further details. Grace Tjandraatmadja (email: Grace.Tjandra@csiro.au) is a Research Scientist with CSIRO Land and Water (CLW), Highett, Australia. She is studying transition strategies to improve the sustainability of urban infrastructure and technology uptake. Makassar water company's water treatment plant. Makassar City.
Water Journal September 2013
Water Journal December 2013